ERDF Operational Programme and R+D+i Projects

ERDF Operational Programme co-funded projects 2014-2020 of the Autonomous Community of Madrid

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Metro de Madrid is participating in the Autonomous Community of Madrid’s ERDF Operational Programme through the performance of projects within the framework of Axis 4 of the Programme consisting of: “Driving the transition to a low-carbon economy in all sectors”.

Specifically, the projects selected for 50% co-funding through these structural funds consist of the Installation of Lifts in 16 Stations in the Metro Network and the Installation of 15 Reversible Cells in Traction Transformer Centres, with a total volume of support allocated in the amount of 24 million euros, with a view to contributing to the attainment of sustainable urban mobility in detriment to the use of more intensely polluting modes of urban transport. 

The installation of lifts is part of the Metro de Madrid Accessibility Plan for 2016/2020. At the present time, approximately 62.70% of the stations in the Metro de Madrid network are already equipped with lifts. Once all of the installation works included in the Plan have been concluded, the percentage of stations with lifts in the Metro de Madrid network will increase to 69.77%. 

All of the foregoing makes Metro de Madrid one of the most accessible metropolitan underground transport systems in the world. Even so, its final goal is to become a metro with universal accessibility, attracting and retaining new passengers with the aim of continuing to cooperate actively in the improvement of the environmental sustainability of the Community of Madrid.
 

16 stations will be provided with lifts in this initial project

Tribunal
Gran Vía
Bilbao
Portazgo
Ventas
Príncipe de Vergara
San Bernardo
Alonso Martínez
Diego de León
Avda. de América
Plaza Elíptica
Méndez Álvaro
Príncipe Pío
Barrio de la Concepción
Pavones
Begoña

Installation of reversible cells in traction centres

The installation of reversible cells reflects the determination of Metro de Madrid to achieve the optimisation of its resources and to continue at the technological forefront. Metro de Madrid has continued to develop technological solutions and has been installing a number of systems in its network for harnessing the energy recovered in the braking of trains for the purpose of reducing the very high consumption of energy required by the traction systems.

In effect, in the braking process, the kinetic energy accumulated by a train can be transformed into electric power capable of being used at some other point in the network. In this phase the electric motor of the trains acts as a generator, with the possibility of two alternatives for using the energy returned by the vehicles:

   - Return it to the catenary so that it can be used by other vehicles. 
   - Transform it into alternating current and return it to the internal high-voltage grid.

In its current situation, Metro de Madrid can apply the first alternative partially, since the harnessing of the energy is limited to those cases where there is another vehicle in the same sector that can consume the energy regenerated at the same instant at which it is returned to the catenary. The objective of the project is consequently the conversion of the existing unidirectional traction centres into reversible traction centres, thereby transforming the regenerated energy into alternating current and returning it to Metro de Madrid’s internal grid. 

The new converters will transform the regenerated energy from direct current into alternating current. This energy will be returned to the high-voltage grid which interconnects Metro de Madrid’s traction centres. 

For the selection of the location of the 15 reversible cells, studies have been performed based on electrical simulations using models which include the details of the infrastructures, the electrification, the electrical mesh of the network, the rolling stock and the traffic on the lines to be analysed. 

In line with the results obtained in the simulation studies performed on the basis of the initial assumptions established, and considering other additional aspects such as the physical space available in the traction centres, the existence of company electricity connections, the availability of direct cable outlets to tunnels and other technical criteria of optimisation, solution and maintainability, the decision was reached to install reversible cells in the following traction centres (although subject to modification on the basis of the results obtained and of any future studies considered necessary if changes eventually occur in the initial assumptions or the results obtained): 
 

L7B: Barrio del Puerto
L10B: La Moraleja
L11: La Peseta
L12: Hospital de Móstoles
L2: La Elipa
L3: Almendrales
L7: Lacoma
L8: Colombia
L10: Cuzco
L12: Leganés
L7: G. Marañón
L7: Francos Rodríguez.
L10: Lago
L12: Arroyo Culebro
L12: El Casar

Fair Stations Project

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FAIR Stations (Future Secure and Accessible Rail Stations) is a project co-financed by the Shift2Rail initiative of the European Commission and runs from September 2017 to August 2019. The objective of the project is to develop solutions for improved user flows within the station and platform train interface, considering key design factors such as security, safety, baggage handling, ticketing, design for accessibility, information & signage and climatology. Tools to be applied to achieve this are:

• Passenger needs assessment;
• Passenger flow modelling;
• Station design algorithm that optimises passenger flows for continuing and emerging operational design requirements;
• Engineering design of a train and/or platform based mechanism to facilitate independent boarding and alighting of PRMs.

The project had its kickoff meeting in Genoa, Italy on the 27 and 28 September 2017. The EC Project Officer made the opening introductory presentation via telco. Partners presented their workflow for the project overall and then focussed on setting up the framework to manage the initial tasks concerning dissemination activities, setting up the Advisory Board and Steering Committees, involvement in TRA2018 and internal and external communication activities.

The FAIR Stations Consortium is Coordinated by STAM, Italy and composed of leading European companies, associations and universities engaged in the field of Research, Technology and Innovation. They will carry out research in complementarity with two Shift2Rail call for member’s projects PIVOT and IN2STEMPO.
 

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TECRAIL Project. Completed project

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The main aim of the TECRAIL Project lies in determining the adaptive feasibility of the LTE (LONG TERM EVOLUTION) and IP CONVERGENCE systems for railway environments, so that they may be applicable to railway signaling, automatic driving, on-board communications and train-ground communications, with the aim of contributing to their standardization and development. 

The spectacular increase in 3G devices and smart phones has meant that volumes of broadband data are increasing exponentially and all the indicators predict that an explosion in the demand for this type of traffic will take place in the coming years. 

As a result, the 3G networks are beginning to show limitations in their performance and capacity to support the new applications needed by the market, both due to the volume of data and the functional features that they require. 

LTE has been adopted by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) to respond to the needs of the next generation mobile networks and it is the reference technology for the development of the current networks.

 

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These networks offer: 

• Higher speed for mobile applications, which is reflected in the faster down- and uploading of Web pages, videos, music and photos 
• Higher video quality, both in definition and speed 
• Use of several mobile applications at the same time 
• Faster response time, which is reflected in enhanced interactivity 

Similarly, in the railway environment efficient infrastructure and rolling stock operation and management increasingly require intelligent real-time information integration in the operating and decision processes. In addition, passengers require high-quality in-journey services. All this results in a significant increase in the needs for communication between the train in movement and the on-track systems. 

Application of the new generation of LTE mobiles and IP convergence both for critical mission and general public performance in the railway environment responds to this need. This means that the railway industry is now beginning to consider how this technology may be applied. 

These technologies are not amenable to direct transfer to the railway environment, which has specific features which make definition of adaptations in the technologies necessary. Amongst these security is the prime consideration. Adaptation of LTE technology to the railway environment has to be similar to that of GSM-R technology, which arose as a development of the public GSM system, to which improvements, functionalities and value-added services were added for the railway sector. 

Public LTE technology is already available on an experimental basis; a similar standardization, development and testing evolution is proposed over the next 10 years so that an LTE-R technology may be available towards 2010 that may be applied to the railway. This system will not replace GSM-R immediately, but rather they will both co-exist for a lengthy period of time and their functionalities will be complementary in two aspects: 

• Improvement in operating aids 
• Advanced signalling systems: automatic driving 

This Project sets out to study these problems, analyzing the situations and technologies, and working on the development of new concepts that will assure the mutual utilization of communications technologies and railway environment in the optimum solution to the new challenges, both for interurban and conventional scenarios and for high speed, in the most integrated manner possible. The aim of all this is to provide train-control centre communications with the quality required not only by the new control and safety needs but also in automatic driving. 

The Project is therefore structured as a technological development proposal that would comprise both the LTE-R system standardization and development stages. For this purpose the intention is to encompass the whole value chain of the train-ground communications applications, in all aspects of interest for the companies of the sponsoring consortium, which are: 

a) Multiservice LTE communications around LTE-R as an evolution of GSM-R/TETRA 
b) IP Convergence in communications in the railway environment 
c) Multi-environment IP broadband train-ground communication, from suburban to high speed 

All these technologies are represented both from the rail operator’s (ADIF and Metro de Madrid) standpoint, but also from that of the technology development manufacturers (Alcatel-Lucent) and of the testing laboratories and developers of measurement solutions (AT4 wireless). The know-how of an investigatory nature is supplied in this case by the research groups belonging to the Polytechnic University of Madrid, the University of A Coruña and the University of Malaga. 

It is important to underline the fact that the Project will include field tests in a real track environment with train on-board equipment that will enable the actual application of the conclusions to be shown. For this purpose, use will be made both of Metro de Madrid facilities and the new ADIF facilities at the Malaga Railway Technology Centre, which will allow the results to be analysed both in interurban environments and conventional and high-speed railways.

The "Coordinated Security Systems Service – CSSS” Project of Metro de Madrid. Completed project

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The CSSS project is being financed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade, more specifically by the Advanced R+D Sub-Program for Strategic Telecommunications and Information Society Actions (in 2008 with the European Regional Development Fund as project nº TSI-020100-2008-306 and in 2009 as project nº TSI-020100-2009-411). 

We announce as well that this project has been also selected to be co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund through its Madrid Operational Programme 2007-2013, priority 1, with a funding of 50%. 

The object of the project is to increase the real level of security of the Metro de Madrid network by combining various lines of action designed to coordinate security system services. In doing so, the quality of life and wellbeing of the users of this mode of transport will be improved through the development and application of information technology. 

In order to manage security incidents more efficiently, which will in turn have a positive impact on service, six new security posts called Line Security Posts will be created, distributed throughout the Metro de Madrid network. From these positions, it will be possible to display real time images from the cameras installed in the metro stations and trains. Security alarms will also be received by these positions, which will also monitor the rounds of the security guards who patrol the Metro de Madrid so that their whereabouts are known at all times. 

Focusing on the aspects of R+D and innovation, the security system that will be implemented with this project will make it possible for the conductors of the trains to view images of the areas where passengers are located and for the Central Security Command Post, Security Management and Line Security Posts to have access to both recorded and real time images of the trains. All of this will lead to an improvement in the quality of service provided, user safety and incident control.

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In addition, thanks to the possibility of instantaneously viewing the facilities and to the development and implementation of a self-diagnostic platform which will provide status reports on the trains? equipment and malfunctions to the Maintenance Post on the ground, a much more efficient maintenance protocol has been established which is intended to improve the availability of the security system and to reduce the time that is needed to detect and repair malfunctions. 

Improvements are also being made to the efficient maintenance of other Metro installations and systems. For example, on-board systems with self-diagnostics (e.g., ATP) can report their incidents to the ground, thus saving time and money. Of course, this is also applicable to station and line equipment. 

With the integration and extension of the IP/ATM and Gigabit multiservice network supervision platform, unique information will be available to Metro de Madrid?s maintenance personnel and CSSS personnel which will expedite the decision-making process. This information will make it possible to locate trains (management of next/last platform), determine the relative position to the platform and improve broadband communication. These technological developments have made it possible for the train conductor to have automatic access to the images from the platform cameras before and after the train enters and exists the station. 

What all of this means is that in the event of an incident at the station (someone falling onto the tracks or people too close to the edge of the platform), the conductor can act accordingly, stopping the train to avoid an accident. This has a direct impact on the end users of the service by avoiding possible delays, line closures, etc. as a consequence of incidents that go undetected. In short, the achievement of all of the objectives pursued by this initiative will constitute a quantum leap in overseeing the security and reliability of the Madrid Metro network.

TRAIN2CAR Project. Completed project

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The purpose of this project is to develop an innovative system for the smart management of the direct current grid of the trains and of the associated systems and devices of Metro de Madrid (traction substations, fixed accumulators, possible inverters), by introducing power feed points for electric cars into the grid, in such a way as to maximise the harnessing of the energy regenerated by the trains during braking and the overall efficiency of the system.

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For this purpose a Consortium has been formed, comprised by Metro de Madrid, the Universidad Pontificia de Comillas through its Technological Research Institute (ICAI), the company, Sistemas de Computación y Automática General (SICA), and the research centre, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), in order to address the objectives of the project and successfully undertake the relevant actions within a specified time limit. 

The following specific targets have been set for the attainment of the objective described in the first paragraph: 

• To develop configurable models and simulators making it possible to analyse the system overall (both the electricity grid as well as the traffic), and to investigate the strategies for the control of the energy regenerated in order to optimise its use. The models and simulators must consider the characteristics of the traction network, the operation and outputs of the various devices (accumulators, voltage transformation elements, etc.), the traction and braking characteristics of the trains and their auxiliary systems, traffic scenarios (peak and off-peak hours), and charging requirement of the electric cars (car fleet, connection points, charging cycles, power, business model, etc.). 

• To simulate and design a regenerated energy control system that will implement smart management strategies of the grid and that will make it possible to provide power to the fleet of electric cars for each operation scenario. This design includes the selection and the dimensioning of the devices comprising the system (accumulators, voltage transformers, etc.), their connections and the design of the energy controller which, in the end, will have to manage the flow of energy between the catenary and the cars. 

• To develop a prototype of the smart grid in METRO DE MADRID which will enable the testing and validation of the strategies developed. 

This project is financed through the INNPACTO 2011 call for proposals, published by the Ministry of Science and Innovation and managed at the present time by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness.

MODsafe Project. Completed project

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Metro de Madrid is one of the 22 companies participating in MODSafe, a European R&D project co-financed by the European Union through it’s 7th Framework Program. 

The European Urban Guided Transport sector (Lightrails, Metros, but also Tramways and Regional Commuter trains) is still characterized by a highly diversified landscape of Safety Requirements, Safety Models, Responsibilities and Roles and Safety Approval, Acceptance and Certification Schemes. 

Furthermore security items are considered more and more vital for the urban transport sector. In some cases these items are linked to the safety of the urban transport systems. In this context safety is seen as everything dealing with the methods and techniques to avoid accidents. Security is concerned with the protection of persons and the system from criminal acts. 

The MODSafe project aimed at helping streamline and bringing some degree of voluntary standardisation within this sector by building a Safety Analysis and Model Reference for the future for Urban Guided Transport projects. 

All the companies of the consortium have joined their forces to make common proposals and offer solutions in order to achieve a Europe-wide coordination and motivate operators to specify in the future their systems (e.g. by procurement of new rolling stock) along with the concept and methodology developed in the MODSafe project. 

You can find more information on www.modsafe.eu

Development of a fire safety system for the equipment located under the frame of metro train cars. Completed project

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After the success and experience acquired in the development and implementation of an extinguishing system inside the passenger compartment area, Metro de Madrid has decided to develop another fire protection system for the equipment located under the car frame. 

This research project, carried out on a coordinated basis by 4 entities, Metro de Madrid S.A., as the project leader, the University of Cantabria GIDAI group, Marioff Hi-Fog and the SME Modelado y Simulación Computacional, has original funding through the 2008 announcement of grants for R+D+i projects under the Transport and Infrastructure Subprogramme of the Ministry of Development and later of the Ministry of the Economy and Competitiveness. 

It consists of studying the design factors and assessing experimentally the performance of the system against real-life scale fire tests on a passenger train in which these protection systems have been installed. 

The activity execution stages consist of: 

- different tests for the analysis of ignition conditions by means of infra-red thermography, 
- scale tests by means of dimensional similarity in order to analyse determining factors of flame propagation and definition of aerodynamic environmental conditions requirable when in service,
- computer-aided simulation studies of fire scenarios in the train underframe inside a tunnel in order to examine the performance of the system developed 
- development of the system on the basis of advanced extinguishing systems using Hi-Fog high-pressure water mist and early aspiration detection 
- lastly, real-life scale fire testing to obtain manifestations of underframe fire scenarios in end use conditions and to validate the performance of the system developed. 

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The increase in induced fire risk factors on Metro trains compared with conventional railway trains requires availability of the best possible safety levels for passengers and the capability of advancing towards Comprehensive Fire Safety Systems suitable for consideration in future courses of action. 

This entails the need to investigate the fire risk factors in the underframes of Metro Transport System rolling stock in order to optimize passenger safety conditions, obtain the best results both from the standpoint of efficiency and of safety, environmental impact and cost, and to be able to determine the design recommendations appropriate for their consideration in regulatory documents. 

The study makes a practical assessment of the advantages of advanced Fire Safety Systems in underframe fire scenarios, for the first time on an international level. 

The results of these investigations will help to reinforce the studies conducted to date by Metro de Madrid, Marioff and the University of Cantabria.

Investigation of a new track platform railway vehicle restraint system. Completed project

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The main aim of this project is to generate new know-how in relation to train restraint systems, supplementary to track chocks, which will allow the present braking distance to be reduced significantly if a derailed train should roll on over the track platform. This will result in upgraded operating capacity and enhanced service quality for users.

To achieve this main aim, we have addressed the following specific objectives:

  - Endow the yards, coach sheds and link tunnels in the system with greater operating capacity 
  - Reduce the times required for the auxiliary movement of rolling stock 
  - Lower maintenance and operating costs

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It has proved possible to achieve these aims through carrying out the following activities:

1. Investigation of the factors having an impact on the restraining process and basic design parameters 

This initial stage of the project starts off with a presentation of the problem to be solved: we examine the dynamics governing the behaviour of the vehicle and therefore what factors or parameters will determine braking capacity and, in general, both the dynamic and structural performance of the restraint systems and the actual vehicle.

2. Investigation and development of the restraint systems

Investigation focused mainly on the discrete restraint system. This system consists of attaching certain elements to the track platform in a certain layout. Each one of these elements is able to absorb a large amount of energy when a train passes over them, so that the train can be braked in a short distance.

Different models of both dynamic and vertical behaviour are produced to assess and develop this kind of system:

On the one hand, using the percussion or collision theory, Simulink (Matlab) models of vertical train dynamics are programmed. 
On the other hand, models of finite elements are produced in LS-Dyna (ANSYS) in ascending order of complexity which enable us to estimate or simulate the actual performance of the system and thereby ascertain the most appropriate design in an economic way.

Conjointly with the development of the discrete restraint system, a series of calculations are carried out to determine the maximum theoretical braking capacity by means of another restraint system concept, referred to as the continuous system. This system consists of a kind of platform that causes the train passing over it to sink and thereby lose energy in its forward movement.

3. Empirical validation of the design parameters of the restraint elements

For real-life verification of the above-mentioned calculations and simulation models, a series of tests are carried out to reproduce the conditions prevailing in a railway system operating in a different environment, the Leganés Technology Park: a railway track 100 metres long with a gradient of approximately 9 metres that terminates in a platform, where the restraint system to be tested is installed. In this way, taking advantage of the effect of gravity a vehicle can be successfully guided against a restraint system at a representative speed. The vehicle used is a specifically prepared and sensored bogie, similar to those fitted to the trains currently operating on the Metro de Madrid network. Finally, to record the deceleration achieved and the performance of the system various accelerometers, restraint element extensometric gauges and a high-speed camera are used on the vehicle.

This Project is co-funded by the Community of Madrid Department of the Economy and Finance by way of the Regional Government Business Innovation Plan, managed by the Madrid Institute of Development (IMADE), within the framework of the European Regional Development Fund Operating Programme, under the objective of “Regional Competitiveness and Employment”, Madrid 2007-2013 (CCI Nº 2007ES162 PO004), with a co-financing rate of 50%, (ERDF) in Axis 1, Priority Item 4, Research and Technological Development Grants. Project dossier reference: PIE/221/2009.

Securemetro Project. Completed project

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SECUREMETRO is a European R&D project aimed at reinforcing one of the Metro de Madrid strategic guidelines, namely improving the safety of users. 

It is a research project developed by an international consortium with a strong Spanish presence, which has examined materials, components and railway and metro car design capable of reducing injuries to passengers in terrorist attacks with explosives on board trains.

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The project, in which Metro de Madrid has played a major role through being one of the principal leaders, has as its main aims lessening the attractiveness of rail transport systems as targets for terrorist attacks through reducing the number of deaths and injuries, increasing the resistance of the cars to explosions, and lowering the economic impact. 

Started up in early 2010 and with a termination date set at June 2013, it has benefited from co-funding by the European Commission within the Seventh Research Framework Programme. 

Under the coordination of the University of Newcastle, the consortium counts on the participation of eleven entities, five of them Spanish: Metro de Madrid, Tecnalia-Inas, Maxam-Expal, Sunsundegui and the Spanish Railways Foundation (FFE). These have cooperated with companies and research centres from the United Kingdom, France and Italy. 

Metro de Madrid supplied an out-of-service Series 5000 car, which was transferred to Buxton (UK) to undergo a controlled explosion, recorded with high-speed cameras in order to obtain a better understanding of the movement of the expansive blast inside the vehicle and the reaction of the interior fixtures and fittings and materials. It was a case of the first test of this type conducted on a real-life scale in a European project. 

The results were used for the design of a vehicle prototype produced by Sunsundegui with higher explosion strength, which underwent tests in Burgos in the autumn of 2012. This design includes the securing of such components as roof panels with retaining cable, application of plastic coatings on the windows, and replacement of heavier frames for lighter ones with greater energy-absorbing capacity. 
  
One of the key criteria was to seek solutions and materials that could be implemented on already existing rolling stock models, with the result that technologies have been developed that may be used both in new car designs and those already in existence. They are materials that absorb the shock wave more readily and become deformed but do not break, so that the damage is much less extensive in the event of an explosion. 

The results of the project of application in the industry are low-cost proposals suitable for being implemented in the medium term. 

The consortium has forwarded the conclusions and recommendations to the European Commission, while the results of the project were also made known at a presentation in Madrid on 19 June 2013. 

Further information: http://securemetro.inrets.fr